Periodic Mass Extinctions, Alexander’s Thesis




Let us now look at Bob Alexander’s thesis and calculations which I will vary somewhat to determine the actual length of the Cosmic Year if his sinusoidal orbit is taken into consideration.

Periodic mass extinctions appear to have happened at least several times throughout the Earth’s history. In some cases most of the life forms which existed just prior to these extinctions were completely wiped out.

The K/T boundary, as it is called, marks the end of the reign of the dinosaurs and is on the order of 65 Million years old. It is popularly believed that a large asteroid struck the Earth causing a worldwide change in climate which interrupted the food chain.

No veggies means no veggie eating dinosaurs and then no dinosaur eating dinosaurs. The extinction of the dinosaurs allowed mammals to evolve and if they had not died out we probably wouldn’t be here to talk about it.

More recently discovered ’Smoking Gun’ evidence points to another mass extinction which occurred around 251 Million years ago when another large asteroid presumably struck the earth. And there appears to be even newer evidence that mass extinctions may happen at the rate of every 62 Million years (+/- 3MY).

 

Period (End of)
Die out rate
/ X
65 MYA (Cretaceous)
85 %
/1 = 65 MY
208 MYA (Trassic)
25% over time
/3 = 69.33 MY
245 MYA (Permian)
96%
/4 = 61.25 MY
365 MYA (Devonian)
70% over time
/6 = 60.83 MY
438 MYA (Ordovician)
50% + some over time
/7 = 62.57 MY

 

 

Average 63.796 MY

 

By virtue of the chart above I believe the average is more like 63.796 MY, but for now let’s say that 62 MY (based on current physical evidence) is the periodic mass extinction average.

251 / 62 = 4.048 (Remember that number)

Since it is difficult to find a terrestrial based cause for these extinctions which would repeat on such regular intervals on such a long time scale, lets say that something happens every 62 Million (or so) years which puts us in harms way, so to speak.

Well, guess what ?

In it’s orbit around the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy, our Solar system may also do this little sinusoidal motion from the top to the bottom to the top (and so on) of the Orion arm (image right) which we go around in. Now, what if the period of one cycle through the arm is around 124 Million years ? Within one cycle we would pass through the middle of the ring (the most dense part) twice and about every 62 million years. Are you with me so far ?.

As we spin around in the arm our forward motion (~150,000 miles/sec) is continuous, but if we go up and down also, that rate would change with position due to angular motion. There is also the possibility that we move side to side within the arm, but for the sake of this discussion let’s ignore that for now.

Now, it’s bad enough that we would traverse this much more dense part of the ring, but we would go through its’ centre at maximum velocity, much faster (in the up/down axis) than when we reach the outer edges of the arm where that relative motion (again up/down) stops altogether so that it can reverse. If we didn’t stop (in the up/down axis), we would just fly off into deep space and it would be bye-bye Milky Way. But luckily (or not) all of the mass nearer the centre of the arm has gravitational force with acts to pull us back in for yet another cycle.

It may well be that these huge killer asteroids do not ’hit us’ as much as we run into them. Also, travelling at that much greater rate of speed means that we have a much better chance of hitting randomly moving objects because we are ’sweeping’ through a larger sectional area of space per unit of time.

The centre of the ring isn’t a hard boundary, it is just more dense than on either side and there is a density gradient as you move away from the centre. So, there is some latitude for interval timing due to this ’kill zone’ principal. Also, since not everything in the ring rotates at the same speed, conditions through the next pass may not be the same as the last one, so hitting something (or not) becomes a bit of a crap shoot. Maybe the Earth gets lucky occasionally and we shoot through the middle of the ring unscathed. This would explain gaps in the mass extinction record.

Ok then, remember the 4.048 number I told you to remember when we started ?

Well, 4.048 is very close to 4… as in 4 complete cycles or 8 centreline passes in 251M years. The error of margin then is about 375,000 years per centreline pass or 187,500 years on either side of it.

 

251M/62M= 4.048 intervals 4.048 – 4 = 0.048 (margin for error over 251MY) .048 / 8 = .006 (Margin for error per centreline pass) .006 x 62M = .375 MY (375,000 Y) per centreline pass or 187,500 Y off either side of the centreline.

By the way, if my ’napkin’ calculations are right, and the dinosaurs were wiped out by a big asteroid 65 MY ago we are due for the next one just about… yesterday… minus ~3 MY. In other words, either we are ~3 Million years over due or just got lucky on this pass.

Lets look at a few numbers. The Milky Way Galaxy is about 100,000 Light Years in diameter. Our Solar system is about 26,000 light years or about 2/3 of the way out from the galactic centre and we revolve at 250 kilometres per second, or about 150 miles per second. We make one revolution every 226 MY which means that we have made about 20 revolutions since the Earth was formed about 4.5 BY ago. It is estimated that there are between 200 and 400 BILLION other stars in the Milky Way and that at least some of those have planets. It is likely from looking at our own Solar system that at least some of those planets probably have moons. That’s a lot of stuff – not to mention asteroids and comets.

They say that a picture is worth a thousand words, so below is a graphic below which illustrates my theory.

It is believed that we are about 20 Light Years away from the centreline of the Orion arm which is believed to be 3000 LY thick in our vicinity. That works out to being about .006 or .6% (20/3000) away from the centreline if the cycle was linear, but it isn’t. And we may not be out of the woods… or rocks, as it were, yet.

If the last mass extinction was 65 Million Years ago and the half cycle period is around 62 MY then the .006 figure is fairly predictable (not to mention scary) especially if we are moving away from the centreline.

One final note though before I go. If you think there is anything we could do to stop one of these killer asteroids if one were discovered tomorrow, you have been watching too many Hollywood movies. NO ONE has a plan on how to deal with this (there are plenty of ideas) especially our government which, more realistically, would probably spend our last days in typical fashion trying to decide who should pay for such a project

Until asteroids or comets are near a luminous source (like our Sun) they are very dark. Most big telescopes are funded to do specific tasks, they don’t hunt for these civilization killers. And, since the number of serious amateur astronomers world wide who look for these objects is probably less than that of the staff at your local McDonalds, it is likely that the only notice you will receive (if you are awake and looking in that direction) will be the thousand foot high wall of debris (which was formerly your neighbourhood) coming at you at about mach three when one of them strikes the Earth.

 

Comparing the Mayan Time Cycles to Precession

 

At this point I will include my essay entitled SUN STORM in order to examine a growing story about the Mayan time cycles.

Astronomers are learning more about our mysterious star we call the Sun. The sun is a huge fusion reactor that slowly fuses hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei.

Our sun is a medium-sized yellow star that is 93,026,724 miles from the Earth. This distance also determines a measure of 1 Astronomical Unit. This distance varies over a year.

The Sun’s core can reach 10 to 22.5 million °F. The surface temperature is approximately 9,900°F (5,500°C). The outer atmosphere of the Sun (which we can see during a solar eclipse) gets extremely hot again, up to 1.5 to 2 million degrees. At the centre of big sunspots the temperature can be as low as 7300 °F (4300 K, 4000 °C). The temperature of the Sun is determined by measuring how much energy (both heat and light) it emits.

The sun has been determined to be about 4.5 billion years old. The earth and the sun are of the same age having formed at the same time according to existing theory.

The sun emits electromagnetic radiation and charged particles. Frequently, the sun will flare and brighten and an explosive flare will emit the energy equivalent of millions of 100-megaton Hydrogen bombs.

Stars like the sun are considered to be stable over their life cycles. The outward pressure of gases in the solar wind balances the inward force of gravity. Lucky for us.

Novas

From time to time a white dwarf star will accumulate too much hydrogen gas from a neighbour and this results in a tremendous explosion of this gas shell that brightens the star in the heavens. This is what we know as a nova. It usually occurs at the final stages of a star’s life cycle.

  • Yet, do we know all that we need to know about novas?

  • What happens if a cloud of hydrogen gas of unusually high density were to engulf our Sun.?

  • Could a mini-nova result in the expulsion of a shell of gas that would burst like a firestorm through the solar system?

Although it seems unlikely, studies of ancient history seem to indicate variations in solar output that may have produced catastrophic changes on earth. Even today, a variation in solar luminosity is occurring and scientists report that the slight increase in solar output may be contributing to climate change and global warming. There is some evidence that some of the other planets in our system are also experiencing warmer temperatures and climate change. These changes could be the result of increasing accumulations of cosmic dust through which our solar system is passing.

My interest in the sun has recently been stimulated by reports I have received from a man, Dr. Dan B.C. Burisch, who claims he is a microbiologist who works for a shadowy arm of the government. He tells me that preparations are being made for a coming catastrophe in the year 2012 that involves changes in our sun and its effects on the earth. This is, of course, related to deciphering the Mayan symbols that seem to point to the winter solstice of our year 2012.

This is such an immense subject that my research on it continues in spurts. To summarize the predictions it can be said that a recurring event may cause the change in our sun. That event, known as the grand crossing, is synchronized to the precession of the equinoxes.

Here is a description of that event:

“Is there something significant we should know about the Winter Solstice date of December 21, 2012? Yes. On this day a rare astronomical and Mayan mythical event occurs. In astronomic terms, the Sun conjuncts the intersection of the Milky Way and the plane of the ecliptic. The Milky Way, as most of us know, extends in a general north-south direction in the night sky. The plane of the ecliptic is the track the Sun (click image right), Moon, planets and stars appear to travel in the sky, from east to west. It intersects the Milky Way at a 60 degree angle near the constellation Sagittarius.

The cosmic cross formed by the intersecting Milky Way and plane of the ecliptic was called the Sacred Tree by the Maya. The trunk of the tree, the Axis Mundi, is the Milky Way, and the main branch intersecting the tree is the plane of the ecliptic. Mythically, at sunrise on December 21, 2012, the Sun – our Father – rises to conjoin the centre of the Sacred Tree, the World Tree, the Tree of Life.

The galactic centre and the Great Rift contain great clouds of hydrogen gas and dust, the substances out of which stars are formed. These clouds partially block our view of the bright stars that crowd the galactic centre.
The great rift of the Milky Way begins near Deneb and extends SW deep into the southern Milky Way ending near Alpha Centauri. The dust clouds of the rift are probably 1,000 light-years distant in Cygnus, and approach us in Aquila, Scutum, Sagittarius and Scorpius, where they are only a few hundred light years away.

The Eagle Aquila is dusted with dark nebulae, ancient star cities, stellar outbursts and the faint puffs of exploded stars. Aquila is on the celestial equator and cuts through the great rift of the Milky Way where it runs NE – SW. Aquila is poor in clusters, rich in faint planetary nebulae, and loaded with dark nebulae.

This rare astronomical event, foretold in the Mayan creation story of the Hero Twins, and calculated empirically by them, will happen for many of us in our lifetime. The Sun has not conjoined the Milky Way and the plane of the ecliptic since some 25,800 years ago, long before the Mayans arrived on the scene and long before their predecessors the Olmecs arrived. What does this mean? “

 

Many do not think that anything special will happen, but others believe that the Mayans recorded significant events and used precise calendars to forecast the recurrence of periodic cycles marked by special events.

Why would the intersection of our sun and solar system with the Milky Way’s equatorial plane constitute a noteworthy event?

“The auspicious year of 2012 indicated in the long count calendar illuminates the fact that the Precessional movement of the Winter Solstice Sun will gradually bring its position into alignment with the very centre of our Galaxy. For the Maya, this is like the last stroke of Midnight on New Year’s Eve; only in 2012 the New Year is the New Galactic Year of 26,000 solar years. The Galactic Clock will be at zero point and a New Precessional Cycle will begin.”

Maurice Cotterell has studied the Mayan (below image), Egyptian, and Incan lost sciences of the sun and has determined that the sun goes through cycles of magnetic reversals and changes of direction. He believes that the ancient calendars show how the earth was destroyed 5 times due to the sun’s twisting magnetic fields.

The last piece of the puzzle that may explain why the sun will react to this event comes from Dr. Paul LaViolette in his book, Earth Under Fire.

“In a nutshell, the book is about LaViolette’s dissertation subject, being [about] the effect of periodic galactic core explosions — the period being roughly 26,000 years — which send out shells of cosmic rays (chiefly in the form of electrons moving at near light-speed) that are hundreds to thousands of light-years thick (the thickness being the duration of that particular galactic core explosion).

The effect of this constant blast of cosmic rays — once the shell hits our solar system which is 23,000 light-years from the galactic core — is to push interstellar dust into the inner solar system (the dust is normally kept out by the pressure of the solar wind). The result of this dust is very major, in a number of different ways, including,

1) increased flaring of the sun in the style of T-Tauri stars

2) a downshift toward the infra-red in terms of the solar radiation reaching the Earth

3) a significant deviation from normal in terms of the total solar energy reaching the ground

The last shell passed the Earth roughly 14,000 years ago, marking the end of the last ice age, and causing all the major physical changes recorded from that time.”

(from: http://www.etheric.com/LaVioletteBooks/EUF-reviews.html)

Proto-stars which are starting to blow away the gas and dust surrounding them are called T-Tauri stars. The warm dust remaining around T-Tauri stars still radiates in the infrared. There is evidence that the remaining dust and gas surrounding T-Tauri stars form rotating disks which may mark the beginnings of planetary systems.

When we say that the sun may begin to behave like a T-Tauri star, this does not mean that the sun transforms into such a star. The gas and dust accumulation that could occur around the sun may cause it to behave like a T-Tauri star which could lead to a significant increase in infrared radiation.

This paper does not explore this theme in depth, but is meant to point the way to further research. While it is uncertain that minor changes in the sun will eventually lead to major consequences, and while it uncertain that interpretation of Mayan prophecy or prediction is correct, the fact is that evidence exists that earth has gone through periodic catastrophes and extinction events in its history and that major changes in climatic conditions have occurred and will reoccur in the future. Research may reveal to us how the sun has played a role in both catastrophic and extinction events of the past and how, by further solar studies, we may predict the sun’s wild weather.
 


Predictions

Since the last major mass extinction event took place during the era of the dinosaurs in the later Jurassic approximately 65 million years ago, the prediction is that we may be encountering a major cycle soon. Linda Howe on Earthfiles.com provided this graph to show the paleohistorical extinction cycles on earth.

Researchers studying rocks from Antarctica have found chemical evidence that a huge meteorite smashed the Earth 251 million years ago and caused the greatest extinction event in the planet’s history, killing about 90% of all life. The extinction, which scientists call the Permian-Triassic event, some 185 million years before a similar meteorite collision with planet earth killed of the dinosaurs. Asish R. Basu, a professor of Earth sciences at the University of Rochester (NY), said proof of a massive impact 251 million years ago in the chemistry found in rock fragments recovered on Graphite Peak in Antarctica.

The latitude in dating these events is such that it indicates that there is a threat zone that the earth passes through that may have a duration of a few million years before and after the crossing of the galactic plane by the solar system. However a minor cycle such as the precession of the equinoxes and the minor crossing where the celestial equator, the galactic centre and the galactic plane cross may have a shorter threat zone in terms of years. If these two cycles conjoin at some point in the near future, it could signal a major cataclysm that would not only destroy a large percentage of life on earth, but probably extinguish unprotected civilization as we know it. One thing is for certain. Our orbiting satellites would not have much chance of survival.

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4 Responses to “Periodic Mass Extinctions, Alexander’s Thesis”

  1. Exceptional site, where did you come up with the knowledge in this piece of writing? I’m happy I found it though, ill be checking back soon to see what other articles you have.

    • I downloaded Mr Alexander’s Thesis while I was studying Periodic emergence of Sunspots & Cyclical nature of Universe while studying Nature of Ages or better known in Hinduism as “Yugs”, “Kalps” & “Manus”.
      Keep the comments flowing. Thank You!

  2. Hello! Excellent site, keep up the good work!

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